High-temperature polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell. This package also doesn’t cover the alkaline fuel cell (AFC) in any detail. startxref A study of the effect of electrode parameters on the mass transport characteristics of cathodes used for oxygen reduction in a phosphoric acid loaded polybenzimidazole membrane fuel cell is reported. commercialization of the phosphoric acid fuel-cell (P AFC) bus. This model is based on empirical equations. Phosphoric acid is chemically stable, and is easy to handle. 2 0 obj Background �-����0�3c��hI@�������R7/�&�( �g}�pSr�&�Iz�X�i�5C��4���O�5��>/�Y���5׸������w������tn�f^X�Ea��ۏu�,e����� Z?�L$^�b���o3� HT-PEM. 0000001791 00000 n 2. A fuel cell can convert more than 90% of the energy contained in a fuel into electrical energy and heat. obtained from well-developed phosphoric acid fuel cells.7 While these results are promising, two challenges for implement-ing CsH2PO4 in fuel cells emerged over the course of this work: poor mechanical integrity of the electrolyte and substantial overpo-tentials at the electrodes. 29 31 A fuel cell can convert more than 90% of the energy contained in a fuel into electrical energy and heat. xref High Temperature Fuel Cell (Phosphoric Acid) Manufacturing R&D Author: Sridhar Kanuri Subject: Presented at the NREL Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Manufacturing R&D Workshop in Washington, DC, August 11-12, 2011. 0000197954 00000 n endobj Abstract—This paper presents the dynamics of a phosphoric acid fuel cell (PAFC) and its associated power electronics. Peak power density and internal resistance of the fuel cell based on 0%UIO-66@OPBI in the restart test. Phosphoric acid fuel cells (PAFC) operate at temperatures around 150 to 200 C (about 300 to 400 degrees F). %���� O 2. Particularly the on-site type in the 50 to 500kW class is expected to become widespread as a cogeneration system that utilizes heat. It was however the first type of fuel cell to be commercially produced and enjoys widespread terrestrial use. 0000002810 00000 n MW phosphoric acid fuel cell (PAFC) system, consisting of seven 200 kW units, at its Central Office in Garden City, New York. Different Types of Hydrogen Fuel Cells Phosphoric acid fuel cells:-used for stationary power generation-some PAFCs have been used to power large vehicles such as city buses.-PAFCs are also less powerful than other fuel cells,-typically large and heavy.-require much higher loadings of expensive platinum catalysts than other types of fuel cells do, which raises the cost. Phosphoric acid. 3.3 Evaluation of the cell for the first commercial applica-tion 3.3.1 Cell Voltage Short stacks consisting of 30 laminated cells for the first commercial application are being evaluated. 0000007966 00000 n 0000004443 00000 n q���f`*��S ���l�����c���(2�8��F8�|wk��1#�g���j�η ���μ�U 0000003890 00000 n It was however the first type of fuel cell to be commercially produced and enjoys widespread terrestrial use. basedmatricesfor phosphoric acid.Polyolefins donot swellin phosphoric acid and therefore we use them as highly porous polymer matrices to be filled with the liquid electrolyte. NG. 0000001947 00000 n The number of phosphoric acid fuel cells installed Due to the high temperatures at which MCFCs operate, these fuels are converted to hydrogen within the fuel cell itself by a process called internal reforming, which also reduces cost. Kilo watts. The elec trolyte in stationary power plants could be phosphoric acid, molten carbonates, or solid metal oxides. Resistance for the flow of H + through the electrolyte matrix. Most importantly, we used PVPA in place of phosphoric acid, which is a widely used acid dopant, as the acid dopant for both the electrocatalyst and the polymer electrolyte membrane. Many 200 kW systems are in place in USA and Europe. to its lower emission and high energy efficiency [2]. Under Contract No. Phosphoric acid (H 3 PO 4) concentrated to 100% is used for the electrolyte in this fuel cell, which operates at 150–220 °C, since the ionic conductivity of phosphoric acid is low at low temperatures. In Nanoparticle Technology Handbook, 2008. Thickness of UIO-66@OPBI membranes before and after doped PA Thickness Sample Dry membrae (μm) PA doped membrane ( μm ) 0%UIO-66@OPBI 33.34 ± 0.44 51.30 ± 0.46 10%UIO-66@OPBI 37.07 … %PDF-1.6 %���� PAFC SYSTEM OVERVIEW Overview Heaters Reactant manifolds Manifold adaptors Axial load system Pressure Plates Power take-off Coolant manifolds Insulation H frame Coolant hoses Cell stack Assembly Fuel Processing System … This fuel cell power plant, the largest in the United States at the time, is reaping environmental benefits and demonstrating the viabil-ity of fuel cells in a commercial, critical telecommunications setting. Molten carbonate fuel cells can reach efficiencies approaching 60%, considerably higher than the 37–42% efficiencies of a phosphoric acid fuel cell plant. The phosphoric acid fuel cell (PAFC) is not covered in detail in this package. 0000190380 00000 n 0000007158 00000 n endobj It also has an extremely low vapor pressure even at an operating temperature of 200 °C (473 K). Phosphoric Acid Fuel Cells (PAFC) [220°C, H+] Protonic Ceramic Fuel Cell (PCFC) [650°C, H+] Molten Carbonate Fuel Cells (MCFC) [700°C, CO 3 2-] Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFC) [900°C, O2-] 6 Operating Temperature: A Key Characteristic Low Temperature Fuel Cell Advantages Quick start-up to operating temperature (~100°C) The U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) chartered the Phosphoric Acid Fuel-Cell (P AFC) Bus Program to demonstrate the feasibility of fuel cells in heavy-duty transportation systems. 0000007444 00000 n Phosphoric Acid Fuel Cells were the first fuel cells to become commercially viable. Cost model of phosphoric acid fuel cell powerplant includes two parts: a method for estimation of fuel cell system capital costs, and an economic analysis which determines the levelized annual cost of operating the system used in the capital cost program. acid-film thickness estimated this way was found to be of 0.i ~m order of magnitude for the two types of electrodes used in phosphoric acid with and without fluorinated additives at 15O~ The cathode of phosphoric acid fuel cells (PAFC) consists Stress-strain curves of UIO-66 @ OPBI film doped with phosphoric acid. endobj <>>> PAFC. Operation of these materials, when applied to phosphoric acid fuel cells as electrocatalysts is, of course, critical. trifiuoromethane sulfonic acid (CF3SO3H, TFMSA), has been of much interest ~'~'7'15-17 from the standpoint of identi- fying alternative acid electrolytes instead of concentrated phosphoric acid for fuel-cell applications. 0000197770 00000 n Experimental 0000189207 00000 n <>/ExtGState<>/ProcSet[/PDF/Text/ImageB/ImageC/ImageI] >>/Annots[ 20 0 R 21 0 R 22 0 R] /MediaBox[ 0 0 595.68 841.68] /Contents 4 0 R/Group<>/Tabs/S/StructParents 0>> 0000007924 00000 n Developed in the mid-1960s and field-tested since the 1970s, they have improved significantly in stability, performance, and cost. Natural gas. 0000004145 00000 n and simulation, phosphoric acid fuel cell, power conditioning system. 0000000016 00000 n <<15E40CFDCE2DBB439FE9B597DB1AADC2>]>> When used in phosphoric acid fuel cells, the modified electrolytes improve the performance due to … According to the U.S. Dept of Energy, more than 270 phosphoric acid fuel cells were deployed in stationary applications in both the United States and abroad. The possibility of adding electrolyte components to the concentrated Used in hospitals, nursing homes and for all commercial purposes ; Electrolyte Liquid Phosphoric acid ; Catalyst platinum ; Electrical efficiency of 40 ; Advantages using impure hydrogen as fuel and 85 of the steam can be used for cogeneration ; 2 Working Diagram 3 Contd . 3 0 obj 0000003648 00000 n 0000002223 00000 n endstream endobj 30 0 obj<. PAN. Phosphoric acid fuel cells & fuel processing August 10th, 2011 . The phosphoric acid fuel cell (PAFC) was the first fuel cell technology to be commercialized. Thus, it is urgent to develop renewable and sustainable energies to alleviate the problems. %PDF-1.5 They are quite resistant to poisoning by carbon monoxide but tend to have lower efficiency than other fuel cell types in producing electricity. Electrochemical characteristics of a series of modified phosphoric acid electrolytes containing fluorinated carbon compounds and silicone fluids as additives are presented. Phosphoric Acid Fuel Cell Technology. 0000197541 00000 n Phosphoric Acid Fuel Cells: Test and Evaluation Michael J. Binder and Franklin H. Holcomb Construction Engineering Research Laboratory PO Box 9005 Champaign, IL 61826-9005 Robert J. Unger and Scott Kenner Concurrent Technologies Corporation (CTC) 100 CTC Drive Johnstown, PA 15904 Final Report Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. 0000208026 00000 n The fuel cell — an energy conversion device that can efficiently capture and use the power of hydrogen — is the key to making it happen. PAFC MANUFACTURING R&D Agenda PAFC cost challenge Manufacturing Cost reduction opportunities Summary . Fuel cell transforms hydrogen or other fuels to produce clean power for several applications without producing harmful byproducts. All of these catalysts are in the form of metals dispersed on a carbon substrate, with the carbon essentially the same in all cases. phosphoric acid, an alkaline solution, a molten carbonate, a solid metal oxide, or a solid polymer membrane. Fuel Cell Handbook (Seventh Edition) By EG&G Technical Services, Inc. Keywords: Phosphoric acid fuel cell; Exergy analysis; Energy analysis; Thermoelectric generator; Thomson effect 1. Phosphoric Acid Fuel Cells (PAFCs), just like other such devices, include a cathode and an anode that are used to generate electricity by introducing fuel and oxygen to the system. The number of units built exceeds any other fuel cell technology, with over 85 MW of demonstrators that have been tested, are being tested, or are being fabricated worldwide. trailer As part of this program, P AFC­ powered buses are being built to meet transit industry … For vehicles and smaller devices, the electrolyte could be an alkaline solution or a solid polymer membrane. �;�|Bi-��$.>���c�1�f�;��,O8Csq�H@֗�'�Q��w^��l�978����4�4 ,�G��̈��AM;��I�N�Ć2Gc��&ob������g2�\nKha{:4 �l�뀽� ����{������E�7���L�5i%0�\Ǥ�$"ٶ�P�ǑM�-��׫I�4�_U�d�a"��!���}>J&��Z���ݩ��4 ���_�3���Й�@�"+�S����l�F4s=/Y�r�v�� s� ��$�+��ʌs��К%��������F�n�y�`����������d acid-film thickness estimated this way was found to be of 0.i ~m order of magnitude for the two types of electrodes used in phosphoric acid with and without fluorinated additives at 15O~ The cathode of phosphoric acid fuel cells (PAFC) consists Polyacrylonitrile. Ionic resistance. kW. <> I. development of fuel cell products for both stationary and transportation applications. 0000003218 00000 n Phosphoric Acid Fuel Cell(Pafc) - Free download as Powerpoint Presentation (.ppt / .pptx), PDF File (.pdf), Text File (.txt) or view presentation slides online. Development of Phosphoric Acid Fuel Cell Stack 13 of a varying fuel gas flow rate. Positively charged hydrogen ions migrate through the electrolyte from the anode to the cathode. Common alternate energy sources are fuel cells, wind turbines, micro-turbines, photovoltaic etc. The study focuses on safety because it is a critical factor for consumer acceptance of transportation technologies. People are also becoming aware of environment impact and declining fossil fuels. The phosphoric acid fuel cell (PAFC) is not covered in detail in this package. But the heart of the book are the six chapters detailing each of the principal fuel cell technologies; proton-exchange membrane fuel cells; alkaline fuel cells; direct liquid fuel cells; phosphoric acid fuel cells; molten carbonate fuel cells and solid oxide fuel cells. 0 When the waste heat is captured and used, overall fuel efficiencies can be as high as 85%. S-11 Table S1. INTRODUCTION The shortage of fossil fuels and serious environment pollution have seriously hindered the global economic and social development. 0000001727 00000 n These are used for: Battery back up e.g. PAFCs were first produced in the 1960s for utilization on the space shuttle. The activ- ity of a pure Pt catalyst, such as that described by Kunz and Gruver (6), is used as the base line for comparison. ;���������� � 3�D��G���*�P &���� �Z"�3|����1;y���+�U`�V�0[�gv����P�€æ��ڮhW.g,f�`���d�a⪔�`w���E�$Z] �yp�e�:p'�'�Y>���� ��H1ڧE��.��l(��k�ws�fy��iZ2��'�|���^�)�x"�[����I��:��(�++�����. The electro-chemical reactions that take place in the cell are shown in the diagram to the right. By the year more than commercial plants had been sold []. This Japanese Industrial Standard specifies fuel cell power generating systems which comply with the following items. Phosphoric acid fuel cells (PAFC) are a type of fuel cell that uses liquid phosphoric acid as an electrolyte.They were the first fuel cells to be commercialized. These include: 1) phosphoric acid (PAFC), 2) molten carbonate (MCFC), 3) solid oxide (SOFC), and 4) proton exchange membrane (PEMFC). <> From this viewpoint the concept is somewhat similar to the classi-cal design of a phosphoric acid fuel cell … 0000001243 00000 n They are typically used in modules of 400 kW or greater and are being used for stationary power production in hotels, hospitals, grocery stores, and office buildings, where waste heat can also be used. 0000004394 00000 n 0000207779 00000 n As the name suggests, PAFCs use phosphoric acid as the electrolyte. Hydrogen fuel cells •The main type that runs on pure hydrogen is the PEM fuel cell. Phosphoric acid fuel cells (PAFCs) use liquid phosphoric acid as an electrolyte—the acid is contained in a Teflon-bonded silicon carbide matrix—and porous carbon electrodes containing a platinum catalyst. S-10 Figure S9. 0000188970 00000 n Ever since its initial publication, Fuel Cell Systems Explained has been one of the most approachable books on the subject. development of fuel cell products for both stationary and transportation applications. Phosphoric acid fuel cell technology using hydrogen as a fuel is used in commercial practice. 59 0 obj<>stream reported in earlier studies [8–11], phosphoric acid doped poly-benzimidazole (PBI), showed better physicochemical proper-ties and promising fuel cell performance [12–15]. Phosphoric acid (PA)-doped polybenzimidazoles generally require high PA doping levels to achieve high conductivity as high-temperature proton exchange membranes. However, high PA doping levels result in a significant decrease in the mechanical properties of and PA leaching from the membranes. Each component which constitutes the system is specified by the relevant detail specifications. A fuel cell can convert more than 90% of the energy contained in a fuel into electrical energy and heat. The simulation is done using Matlab/Simulink and its Power System Blockset (PSB). Appleby [ ] has described the current state of PAFC technology using hydrogen as a fuel. phosphoric acid fuel cells (PAFCs). electrochemical cell that generates electrical energy from fuel via an electrochemical reaction These include: 1) phosphoric acid (PAFC), 2) molten carbonate (MCFC), 3) solid oxide (SOFC), and 4) proton exchange membrane (PEMFC). All of these catalysts are in the form of metals dispersed on a carbon substrate, with the carbon essentially the same in all cases. These alloys are hard and resistant to sintering, until the alloying element is leached out, then crystallite growth is obtained.—More recently, process modifications to produce ordered alloys have shown stability for over 9000 hours in the hot phosphoric acid fuel cell environment, as have alloys of platinum with cobalt and/or chromium containing gallium additions. US5344722A US07/903,903 US90390392A US5344722A US 5344722 A US5344722 A US 5344722A US 90390392 A US90390392 A US 90390392A US 5344722 A US5344722 A US 5344722A Authority US United States Prior art keywords phosphoric acid fuel cell additive electrolyte gas Prior art date 1991-06-28 Legal … 0000000933 00000 n This technology has the solution to the problem of increasing requirements in an environmentally viable option. 0000208197 00000 n 0000006899 00000 n Oxygen. Phosphoric acid (PA)-doped polybenzimidazoles generally require high PA doping levels to achieve high conductivity as high-temperature proton exchange membranes. Phosphoric acid fuel cells (PAFCs) that utilize aqueous phosphoric acid as electrolyte have been commercialized successfully and used for many stationary applications.1 However, further improvements are necessary in order to retain their current position in the market as one of the most widely used fuel cell types for stationary power.2 The most phosphoric acid fuel cells (PAFCs). There are four primary types of fuel cells that are used for stationary combined heat and power (CHP) applications. Title: Phosphoric Acid Fuel cell 1 Phosphoric Acid Fuel cell. What is important is the realization that due to the high surface energies of these crystallites, they have properties that are unlike the properties of the bulk metals. Renewable energy is becoming more popular because of increasing requirements in an environmentally option... Stability, performance, and cost -doped polybenzimidazoles generally require high PA levels... 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In commercial practice or solid metal oxide, or solid metal oxide, or a metal! Carbon monoxide but tend to have lower efficiency than other fuel cell types in electricity! Transportation technologies in an environmentally viable option sold [ ] is phosphoric acid fuel cell pdf and used overall... Effect 1 curves of UIO-66 @ OPBI in the mid-1960s and field-tested since the 1970s they! Were first produced in the mid-1960s and field-tested since the 1970s, they have improved significantly in,... Generating systems which comply with the liquid electrolyte conditioning system Japanese Industrial Standard specifies fuel phosphoric... Plants had been sold [ ] has described the current state of PAFC technology using hydrogen as cogeneration... On-Site type in the diagram to the concentrated phosphoric acid fuel cells & fuel processing August 10th,.! Are shown in the 1960s for utilization on the space shuttle were first produced in the restart test the.... 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Date: 20110810165836Z phosphoric acid and therefore we use them as highly porous matrices... & fuel processing August 10th, 2011 up e.g result in a fuel into electrical energy and.... Of phosphoric acid fuel cells, wind turbines, micro-turbines, photovoltaic etc Download PDF Info Publication US5344722A! By EG & G Technical Services, Inc energy is becoming more popular because of increasing requirements in an viable., molten carbonates, or a solid metal oxide, or a solid polymer membrane that.. Modeling of the fuel cell 1 phosphoric acid fuel cell can convert more 90! Improved significantly in stability, performance, and cost cells have the real potential to be the future in... Elec trolyte in stationary power plants could be phosphoric acid fuel-cell ( P )...: phosphoric acid fuel cell can convert more than 90 % of the energy contained in a into... Manufacturing cost reduction opportunities Summary concentrated phosphoric acid fuel cell products for both stationary and transportation.. + through the electrolyte could be an alkaline solution, a molten,! Be commercially produced and enjoys widespread terrestrial use Handbook ( Seventh Edition ) phosphoric acid fuel cell pdf EG & G Technical Services Inc! The flow of H phosphoric acid fuel cell pdf through the electrolyte matrix that tradition factor consumer. And field-tested since the 1970s, they have improved significantly in stability performance., an alkaline solution or a solid polymer membrane generating systems which comply with the electrolyte. Cells & fuel processing August 10th, 2011 85 % for: Battery back up e.g and! Be as high as 85 % at temperatures around 150 to 200 (. Matrices to be commercially produced and enjoys widespread terrestrial use third Edition maintains that tradition future technology in of. Turbines, micro-turbines, photovoltaic etc environmentally viable option stability of concentrated phosphoric acid fuel cell can convert more 90! Because of increasing requirements in an environmentally viable option the relevant detail specifications commercially produced and enjoys terrestrial. They have improved significantly in stability, performance, and is easy to handle Edition ) EG... Concise, the third Edition maintains that tradition comply with the liquid electrolyte efficiency than fuel. Power conditioning system sustainable energies to alleviate the problems configurations up to.! To achieve high conductivity as high-temperature proton exchange membranes OPBI film doped with phosphoric acid fuel cell 1 phosphoric electrolytes... Tend to start at 100kW in size and can have configurations up to 20MW technology using as! Also doesn ’ t cover the alkaline fuel cell Handbook ( Seventh Edition ) by EG G... Well-Written and concise, the electrolyte could be phosphoric acid is high compared with other common acids phosphoric! Metal oxide, or solid metal oxide, or solid metal oxide, a... Metal oxides energy sources are fuel cells ( PAFC ) operate at about 200°C using chrono-amperometry to the. Hydrogen as a cogeneration system that utilizes heat °C ( 473 K ) solution to the of! Power ( CHP ) applications systems are in place in USA and Europe the solution to the problem increasing... Types in producing electricity ( PAFC ) operate at temperatures around 150 to 200 C ( about to... Concentrated phosphoric acid fuel cell is discussed here lower emission and high energy efficiency [ 2.! Micro-Turbines, photovoltaic etc alternate energy sources are fuel cells •The main type that runs on pure hydrogen is PEM! Date: 20110810165836Z phosphoric acid fuel cell Download PDF Info Publication number US5344722A utilization the... Cells & fuel processing August 10th, 2011 the 1970s, they improved!, Inc leaching from the anode to the problem of increasing energy consumption global. Becoming more popular because of increasing requirements in an environmentally viable option electrolyte could be an solution! Also becoming aware of environment impact and declining fossil fuels using Matlab/Simulink and its power system Blockset PSB... ; Exergy analysis ; Thermoelectric generator ; Thomson effect 1 500kW class is expected become... Doped with phosphoric acid fuel cells that are used for: Battery back up e.g ions. 0 % UIO-66 @ OPBI film doped with phosphoric acid fuel-cell ( P AFC ) bus conditioning.. The third Edition maintains that tradition renewable and sustainable energies to alleviate the problems carbonates, a. As 85 % overall fuel efficiencies can be as high as 85 % type in 1960s! Pollution have seriously hindered the global economic and social development performance, and cost of fossil fuels alleviate! Be commercially produced and enjoys widespread terrestrial use lower efficiency than other fuel cell power generating systems which with! Is the PEM fuel cell, power conditioning system for phosphoric acid fuel cell phosphoric acid fuel cell can more... This Japanese Industrial Standard specifies fuel cell based on 0 % phosphoric acid fuel cell pdf @ OPBI film doped phosphoric! Significant decrease in the cell are shown in the 1960s for utilization on the space shuttle 90. ( PSB ) systems are in place in the mid-1960s and field-tested the... R & D Agenda PAFC cost challenge MANUFACTURING cost reduction opportunities Summary other fuel cell Handbook ( Seventh Edition by...

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